Subscribe free to our newsletters via your
. Space Travel News .




STELLAR CHEMISTRY
A close look a the nearest standard candle supernova in several decades
by Staff Writers
Stockholm, Sweden (SPX) Mar 31, 2014


Composite image from the 2.5-meter Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma showing SN2014J in the dusty cigar galaxy M82 (image courtesy J. Johansson). The right upper panel shows a detailed near-infrared image from the 10-meter Keck telecope in Hawaii used to accurately locate the site of the explosion. The bottom right panel indicates the position of the supernova on pre-explosion images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Image courtesy A. O'Conell and M. Mountain. For a larger version of this image please go here.

Supernova 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 -less than 12 million light-years away- exploded on January 14, 2014 and was the closest "standard candle" supernova since (at least) 42 years.

An impressive coordinated observational effort orchestrated by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) team and led by Ariel Goobar from the Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Goobar et al. 2014, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 784, L12) provides important new clues into the nature of these explosions, as well as the environments where they take place.

The proximity of SN2014J allowed the iPTF team to study this important class of stellar explosions, known as Type Ia supernovae, over a very wide wavelength range, starting just hours after the deduced explosion time.

Furthermore, Goobar and collaborators used pre-explosion images of the region of M82 where the supernova went off, both from the Hubble Space Telescope and from the Palomar Oschin Telescope, to search for a star in the location of the explosion, or possible earlier nova eruptions. The lack of pre-explosion detections suggests that the supernova may have originated in the merging of compact faint objects, e.g., two white dwarf stars, i.e., the kind of Earth size stars that our sun will evolve to once it runs out of nuclear fuel.

"Until very recently, the leading model for standard candle supernovae was thought to include a companion star from which material was stripped by the white dwarf until the accumulated mass could no longer be sustained by the outwards pressure, leading to a runaway thermonuclear explosion. The observations of SN2014J are challenging for this theoretical picture", says Goobar.

Type Ia supernovae are among the best tools to measure cosmological distances. Thanks to their consistent peak brightness, these "standard candles" are used to map the expansion history of the Universe.

In 1998 distance measurements using supernovae lead to the a paradigm shift in cosmology and fundamental physics: the expansion of the Universe is speeding up, contrary to the expectations from the attractive nature of gravitational forces: a mysterious new cosmic component, "dark energy", has been invoked to explain this unexpected phenomenon. This discovery was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics.

"Since Type Ia supernovae are very rare, occurring only once every several hundred years in a galaxy like ours, there have been very few opportunities to study these explosions in great detail. SN2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 is a very welcome exception", says Rahman Amanullah a researcher at OKC.

A better understanding of the physics behind Type Ia supernovae and the material surrounding the explosion and dimming some of the light is crucial to further refine the measurements of the expansion history of the Universe. Joel Johansson, a PhD student at OKC that played an essential role in the analysis fills in "many supernovae explode in clean environments, free of dust in the line of sight. This is not the case for SN2014J, which gives us a unique opportunity to study both the properties of the supernova explosion but also of the intervening dust".

The lessons learned by the studies of SN2014J may be very useful for the analysis of the large Type Ia SN sample that scientists have collected over decades, especially the astrophysical corrections needed to make accurate distance estimates. Only then may we be able to tell what is causing the accelerated expansion of the cosmos.

The iPTF project is a scientific collaboration between Caltech; Los Alamos National Laboratory; the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; the Oskar Klein Centre in Sweden; the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel; the TANGO Program of the University System of Taiwan; and the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe in Japan.

The observations were carried out using multiple astronomical facilities. Besides the Palomar telescopes, data of SN2014J and M82 were obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, the Keck Telescope, the Faulkes Telescope North, the Mount Abu 1.2m Infrared telescope in India, the1.93m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, CNRS, France, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope.

APJ article

.


Related Links
Stockholm University
Stellar Chemistry, The Universe And All Within It






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Simple, like a neutron star
Rome, Italy (SPX) Mar 27, 2014
In how many ways can one describe an object? Take an apple: by just looking at it we can easily estimate its weight, shape and colour but we are unable to describe it at any other level, for example, to evaluate the chemical composition of its flesh. Something similar also applies to astronomical objects: until today one of the challenges facing scientists was to describe neutron stars at ... read more


STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Arianespace's seventh Soyuz mission from French Guiana is readied for liftoff next week

NASA Seeks Suborbital Flight Proposals

Arianespace Launches ASTRA 5B and Amazonas 4A

SpaceX Launch to the ISS Reset for March 30

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Mars yard ready for Red Planet rover

Mars One building simulated colony to vet potential colonists

Cleaner NASA Rover Sees Its Shadow in Martian Spring

Mars-mimicking chamber explores habitability of other planets

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Unique camera from NASA's moon missions sold at auction

Expeditions to the Moon: beware of meteorites

A Wet Moon

ASU camera creates stunning mosaic of moon's polar region

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Dwarf planet 'Biden' identified in an unlikely region of our solar system

Planet X myth debunked

WISE Finds Thousands Of New Stars But No Planet X

New Horizons Reaches the Final 4 AU

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Lick's Automated Planet Finder: First robotic telescope for planet hunters

Space Sunflower May Help Snap Pictures of Planets

NRL Researchers Detect Water Around a Hot Jupiter

UK joins the planet hunt with Europe's PLATO mission

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Advancing the Technology Readiness Of SLS Adaptive Controls

Airbus Defence and Space to cooperate with Snecma on electric propulsion

Boeing on Schedule to Deliver World's First All-Electric Satellites

Europe's IXV atmospheric reentry demonstrator ready for final tests

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Tiangong's New Mission

"Space Odyssey": China's aspiration in future space exploration

China to launch first "space shuttle bus" this year

China expects to launch cargo ship into space around 2016

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Cosmic collision creates mini-planet with rings

Hubble Space Telescope Spots Mars-Bound Comet Sprout Multiple Jets

Comet lander awakes from long hibernation

First Ring System Around Asteroid




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.