Subscribe to our free daily newsletters
  Space Travel News  




Subscribe to our free daily newsletters



TECH SPACE
3-D printing aids in understanding food enjoyment
by Staff Writers
University Park PA (SPX) Nov 23, 2015


A partially completed 3-D printed airway from nostril to trachea with fine structure of the nasal cavity showing. Image courtesy Rui Ni, Penn State. For a larger version of this image please go here.

Tasting food relies on food volatiles moving from the back of the mouth to the nasal cavity, but researchers have wondered why airflow doesn't carry them in the other direction, into the lungs. Now a team of engineers, using a 3D printed model of the human airway from nostril to trachea, has determined that the shape of the airway preferentially transfers volatiles to the nasal cavity and allows humans to enjoy the smell of good food.

"During quiet breathing, there is no valve that can control the direction of volatile transport," said Rui Ni, assistant professor of mechanical engineering, Penn State. "However, something must be controlling the movement of these particles and keeping them out of the lungs."

In the past, physiologists looked at the nasal passages, but not at the pathway from the back of the mouth to the nose. In this case, the researchers used data from CT scans and the help of two radiologists to build a schematic of the human airway from the nostrils to the trachea, including the fine structure. They then used the schematic to make a 3D model using a 3D printer.

Ni and colleagues then tested airflow into and out of the airway. They reported their results in a recent issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Chewed food particles end up in the back of the mouth in a sort of side cavity to the main airflow.

The researchers found that when air is inhaled through the nose, the air flow forms an air curtain to prevent volatile particles released from the back of the mouth from escaping into the lungs. However, when air is exhaled, it sweeps into the area with abundant food volatiles moving them into the nasal cavity where they are sensed by olfactory cells.

Movement of the particles is also effected by the speed of breathing.

"Smooth, relatively slow breathing maximizes delivery of the particles to the nose," said Ni. "Food smells and tastes better if you take your time."

This slow, steady breathing optimizes the unsymmetrical transport effect and allows more air to sweep particles out and up. Ni suggests that for a really good meal, taking time to slow down and breathe smoothly will deliver more smell and flavor.

Other researchers on this project included Mark H. Michalski, Gordon M. Shepherd and Elliott Brown, School of Medicine; Ngoc Doan and Joseph Zinter, Center for Engineering Innovation and Design; and Nicholas T. Ouelletter, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; all at Yale University.


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

.


Related Links
Penn State
Space Technology News - Applications and Research






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Previous Report
TECH SPACE
Study shows some 3-D printed objects are toxic
Riverside CA (SPX) Nov 13, 2015
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found parts produced by some commercial 3D printers are toxic to certain fish embryos. Their results have raised questions about how to dispose of parts and waste materials from 3D printers. "These 3D printers are like tiny factories in a box," said William Grover, an assistant professor of bioengineering in the Bourns College of ... read more


TECH SPACE
NASA Orders SpaceX Crew Mission to International Space Station

NASA Selects New Technologies for Parabolic Flights and Suborbital Launches

United Launch Alliance exits launch competition, leaving SpaceX

Spaceport America opens up two new campuses

TECH SPACE
Study: Mars to become a ringed planet following death of its moon

A witness to a wet early Mars

NASA completes heat shield testing for future Mars exploration vehicles

Curiosity Mars Rover Heads Toward Active Dunes

TECH SPACE
Gaia's sensors scan a lunar transit

SwRI scientists explain why moon rocks contain fewer volatiles than Earth's

All-female Russian crew starts Moon mission test

Russian moon mission would need 4 Angara-A5V launches

TECH SPACE
Tyson weighs in on New Horizons' Pluto discoveries

Composite images compare sunlit faces of Pluto

Astronomers spot most distant object in the solar system

New Horizons Yields Wealth of Discovery from Pluto Flyby

TECH SPACE
Forming planet observed for first time

UA researchers capture first photo of planet in making

Rocket Scientists to Launch Planet-Finding Telescope

5400mph winds discovered hurtling around planet outside solar system

TECH SPACE
NASA awards new contract for rocket engine development

Next Giant Leap, No Small Steps

Crew Dragon Propulsion System Completes Development Testing

BAE and Reaction Engines to develop a new aerospace engine

TECH SPACE
China to launch Dark Matter Satellite in mid-December

China to better integrate satellite applications with Internet

China's satellite expo opens

New rocket readies for liftoff in 2016

TECH SPACE
Secondhand Spacecraft Has Firsthand Asteroid Experience

The colors of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Rosetta and Philae: one year since landing on a comet

Mercury Gets a Meteoroid Shower from Comet Encke




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement